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revolt of 1857 project

revolt of 1857 project

The Revolt of 1857 was an extremely important event in Indian history. The political causes of the revolt may be traced to the British policy of expansion through the Doctrine of Lapse and direct annexation. Military Grievances: The extension of British dominion in India had adversely affected the service condition of the Sepoys. Captured Delhi on 20th September 1857 (Nicholson died soon due to a mortal wound received during the fighting). It was initiated by sepoys in the Bengal Presidency against the British officers. The Indian Rebellion of 1857 Nilesh Sawkare. The southern provinces did not take part in it. The revolt spread over the entire area from the neighbourhood of Patna to the borders of Rajasthan. Disclaimer Copyright, History Discussion - Discuss Anything About History, Failure of Great Indian Revolt of 1857 and Its Causes, Top 4 Causes of the Revolt of 1857 In India, The Revolt of 1857 in India (Study Notes), Social and Economic Impact of British Rule in India, Forts in India: 5 Magnificent Ancient Forts in India, Mosques in India: 15 Ancient Mosques in India. The Revolt of 1857 had been preceded by a series of disturbances in different parts of the country from the late eighteenth century onwards. But his brilliant commander Tantia Tope continued the struggle. Mangal Pandey On March 29, 1857, on the parade ground at Barrackpore, a sepoy named Mangal Pandey fired the first shot of the uprising. The sever famines which devoured millions of people remained issues, that were never addressed. Revolt of 1857 (Sepoy Mutiny) multiple choice questions for your upcoming exams like SSC, CGL, IAS Railway etc. Social and Religious Causes: The British had abandoned its policy of non-interference in the socio-religious life of the Indians. The 1857 war of Independence, or Indian Rebellion of 1857, was the first Indian war of Independence and it was contained on June 20,1858 with the fall of Gwalior. of Attempts, AIBE XVI 2021- All About Eligibility, Exam Pattern, Syllabus, Admit Card, Result, Important Dates, Government Jobs Exams Dates 2020 LIVE Updates: CGPSC , MAHADISCOM, WBPSC, RPSC, HPPSC, RSMSSB, BPSC, SSC and all live Updates, IBSAT 2020 Admit Card - Available Now, Direct Link Available, CGPSC Document Verification Schedule 2020 Released for Assistant Grade 3, Stenographer and other posts @psc.cg.gov.in, Check Details. After all the policies and oppressive actions of the British on Indian masses, on the morning of May 11 th, 1857 Bahadur Shah Zafar was proclaimed Shahenshah-e-Hindustan and the Sepoy Mutiny happened.Interestingly, there was no direct British Rule in India till this point of time. [RAS/RTS 2012] A: Ajmer […] History, Indian History, Freedom Struggle, Revolts, The Revolt of 1857. The revolt was mainly feudal in character carrying with it some nationalist elements. A rumour spread that the cartridges of the new Enfield rifles were greased with the fat of cows and pigs. 2.1 Superior British Army; 2.2 Limited Supplies and Lack of Modern Communication; 3 Political Reasons for the Failure of 1857 Revolt. Many among these groups were unable to meet the heavy revenue demands and repay their loans to money lenders, eventually losing the lands that they had held for generations. Besides, an Indian sepoy could not rise to a rank higher than that of a Subedar. The revolt of 1857 is regarded by many as the First War of Indian Independence. The revolt began on May 10, 1857, at Meerut as a sepoy mutiny. 6 ABOUT THE NEW CARTRIDGE The Revolt of 1857 paved the way for the future struggle for freedom in India. During the Indian Mutiny of 1857. Died at Lucknow in December 1857. By the first half of the 19th century, the East India Company had brought major portions of India under its control. In Bihar the revolt was led by Kunwar Singh. These soldiers lost their means of livelihood. Lack of coordination between the sepoys, peasants, zamindars and other classes, was also a reason. In this context, mention may be made of the rebellions of the Bhils of Madhya Pradesh, the Santhals of Bihar and the Gonds and Khonds of Orissa. The main causes were disunity of the Indians, lack of complete nationalism etc. There are various views regarding events of 1857. The Revolt of 1857 - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. The Revolt of 1857, also regarded as India's First War of Independence is an extremely important event of Indian history. An Act in 1850 changed the Hindu law of inheritance enabling a Hindu who had converted into Christianity to inherit his ancestral properties. Both Hindu and Muslim sepoys refused to use them. The 1857 war of Independence, or Indian Rebellion of 1857, was the first Indian war of Independence and it was contained on June 20,1858 with the fall of Gwalior. Description: The Indian sepoys were required to work far off without extra Bhatta or payment. It was merely a product of Sepoy but was accumulated grievances of the people against the Company’s administration and of their dislike for the foreign regime. Begum Hazrat Mahal, one of the begums of the ex-king of Awadh, took up the leadership of the revolt. 1. It began when Indian troops (sepoys) in the service of Britain’s East India Company refused to use purportedly tainted weaponry. Image Source: 51ec5c0d06ef68842cbd-eb61d9770b9e4a1d2dacebe5287fbc1d.r85.cf2.rackcdn.com/3354F365-60F8-40DE-99E9-58ACE0BCAA35.jpg. • The British army exposed its vulnerability in the First Afghan war, the Sikh war and the Crimean war. The Revolt of 1857 lasted for more than a year. Abolition of Sati (1829), Hindu Widow Remarriage Act (1856). 22 Jan, 1857. Revolt of 1857 The sepoys wanted an end to the British rule and make Bahadur Shah Zafar their leader. Here we outline the various political and economic factors that helped cause the revolt. [RAS/RTS 2012] A: Ajmer […] The Doctrine of Lapse was abolished. 02/2019 @gjust.ac.in, This website follows the DNPA’s code of conduct, एंट्रेंस एग्जाम्स के मल्टीपल च्वाइस क्वेश्चन्स सॉल्व करने के कारगर तरीके जानिये यहां, BARC ASO Admit Card 2020 to Release on 28 Dec @barc.gov.in: Download Final List of Screened In Candidates, Physical Test from 18 Jan 2021, VSSC भर्ती 2021: 79 साइंटिस्ट / इंजीनियर और मेडिकल ऑफिसर पदों की वेकेंसी के लिए vssc.gov.in पर करें आवेदन. The modern intelligent Indians also didn't support the cause. The annexation of Baghat and Udaipur was, however, canceled and they were restored to their ruling houses. The Indian Rebellion of 1857 began as a mutiny of sepoys of the East India Company's army on 10 May 1857, in the cantonment of the town of Meerut, and soon escalated into other mutinies and civilian rebellions largely in the upper Gangetic plain and central India, with the major hostilities confined to present-day Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, northern Madhya Pradesh, and the Delhi region. Gwalior was recaptured by the British. The Governor General’s office was replaced by that of the Viceroy. Defense against Nana Sahib's forces till 26th June 1857. Defeated the rebels (Nana Sahib's force) on 17th July, 1857. After all the policies and oppressive actions of the British on Indian masses, on the morning of May 11 th, 1857 Bahadur Shah Zafar was proclaimed Shahenshah-e-Hindustan and the Sepoy Mutiny happened.Interestingly, there was no direct British Rule in India till this point of time. The news of the events at Delhi spread rapidly, sparking uprisings in many districts. Karl Marx in the summer of 1857 expressed the same doubt in the pages of New York Daily Tribune: “What he (John Bull) considers a military mutiny”, he wrote, “Is in truth a national revolt”. In this article, we have summarized the causes, impact, importance, and outcomes of the revolt. 1. In rural areas, peasants and zamindars resented the heavy taxes on land and the stringent methods of revenue collection followed by the Company. The economic exploitation by the British and the complete destruction of the traditional economic structure caused widespread resentment among all sections of the people. The revolt of 1857 was the conscious beginning of the Independence struggle against the colonial tyranny of the British. … They were required to serve in an area away from their homes without the payment of extra Bhatta. Their Crime: These troopers had refused to load their rifles with the new cartridges. The English educated middle class, the rich merchants, traders and zamindars of Bengal helped the British to suppress the revolt. The policies and laws introduced by the Company created discontentment among the rulers, landlords, peasants, tribals and sepoys and all wanted an end to the … Hakim Ahsanullah (Chief advisor to Bahadur Shah II), Begum Hazrat Mahal, Birjis Qadir, Ahmadullah (advisor of the ex-Nawab of Awadh), Nana Sahib, Rao Sahib (nephew of Nana), Tantia Tope, Azimullah Khan (advisor of Nana Sahib), Maulvi Ahmadullah (He declared the Revolt as Jihad against English). One hundred years after the Battle of Plassey, anger against the unjust and oppressive British Government took the form of a revolt that shook the very foundations of British rule in India. The mutiny-rebellion has been the topic of fierce historical controversy. Causes of the Revolt of 1857 Political Economic Military Social Administrative ... Ss project history Yash Chopra. He captured Kanpur and proclaimed himself the Peshwa. On 9 May 1857, they were severely punished for this. They developed the suspicion that the Government was trying to convert Indians to Christianity.After the annexation of Awadh the Nawab’s army was disbanded. There are various names for the revolt of 1857 – India’s First War of Independence, Sepoy Mutiny, etc. India now came under the direct rule of the British Crown. Large numbers of sepoys were drawn from the peasantry and had family ties in villages, so the grievances of the peasants also affected them. 16. Recaptured Banaras and Allahabad in June 1857. The revolt began on May 10, 1857, at Meerut as a sepoy mutiny. • The Indian sepoys were required to work far off without extra Bhatta or payment. THE GREAT REVOLT THE FIRST WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 3. By the first half of the 19th century, the East India Company had brought major portions of India under its control. Indian Revolt of 1857The Indian revolt of 1857 was a widespread Indian rebellion against British rule. However, recent researches have proved that the cartridge was not the only cause for this revolt. There the mutinous sepoys were joined by the disbanded soldiers from the old Awadh army. UPSC IAS 2020 Exam: Click here to get the Complete 30 Days Study Plan to score high in Prelims. It failed to have the character of an all-India struggle.Important rulers like Sindhia, Holkar, Rana of Jodhpur and others did not support the rebels. It was only later on that other elements of society joined the revolt. It is also known by other names: the Indian Mutiny, the Indian Rebellion of 1857, or the Indian Revolt of 1857. It was after this that the Nationalistic Movement in the country gathered momentum. The first expression of organised resistance was the Revolt of 1857. 1. Berhampore and Barrackpore see outbreaks. The Sanyasi Rebellion in North Bengal and the Chunar rebellion in Bihar and Bengal broke out in the late eighteenth century. Table of Contents. Revolt of 1857 important GK Questions answers PDF. The Indian sepoys in Meerut murdered their British officers and broke open the jail. Dalhousie announced in 1849, that the successor of Bahadur Shah II would have to leave the Red Fort. Before loading these rifles the sepoys had to bite off the paper on the cartridges. Although serious and, in some cases, long drawn, these did not pose any serious threat to the existence of the British Empire. The rebels were either hanged or blown to pieces by canons. Not a shilling was spent from the British treasury on the defense of the India. Thus ended the imperial dynasty of the Mughals. The English, on the other hand, received a steady supply of men, money and arms in India. Indian Revolt of 1857The Indian revolt of 1857 was a widespread Indian rebellion against British rule. IAS Kracker — August 27, 2017 15 comments The Revolt or uprising of 1857 was a valiant effort by disgruntled Indian sepoys to overthrow the colonial power from Indian shores, however, it ended in failure. The Indian public which does not like sudden changes was applied with the new laws and customs which were anathema to the … We know how the British got their strong hold in India. An Indian sepoy was paid less than a European sepoy of the same rank. Soon there was a rebellion in the Meerut Cantonment. In March 1857, Mangal Pandey, a sepoy in Barrackpore, had refused to use the cartridge and attacked his senior officers. Greased cartridges cause unrest. Lack of coordination between the sepoys, peasants, zamindars and other classes, was also a reason. Thus, Indian administration was taken over by Queen Victoria, which, in effect, meant the British Parliament. The Revolt of 1857 was an unsuccessful but heroic effort to eliminate foreign rule. It began on May 10, 1857 when Indian sepoys from the East Indian Company's army created a mutiny in Meerut that soon spread throughout the central and northern India cities. By continuing to use our website, you agree to our. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. THE REVOLT OF 1857 “The Sepoy Mutiny” 2. Sepoys in the Presidency of Bengal revolted against their British officers. The tenure of Dalhousie was pathetic as far as concerns of the Indian natives are concerned. 2. Who died during the seizure of British residency by rebels at Lucknow on 2nd July, 1857! The Revolt of 1857 eventually broke out over the incident of greased cartridges. The revolt of 1857 created a big gap between the different religious communities especially the Hindus and the Muslims as each blamed the other for its failure. Begun in Meerut by Indian troops (sepoys) in the service of the British East India Company, it spread to Delhi, Agra, Kanpur, and Lucknow. The Revolt of 1857 II, created hostility among the ruling class.1 had been preceded by a series of disturbances in different parts of the country from the late eighteenth Moreover, the sentiments of the people were hurt century onwards. Their Crime -These troopers had refused to load their rifles with the new cartridges. In a recent project, historian D. Kirti Narain uncovers the veil of anonymity surrounding scores of women — royals, aristocrats, courtesans, and commoners — … The revolt marked the end of the East India Company’s rule in India. Died at Lucknow while fighting against the rebels. Nana Saheb, Tantia Tope and Rani Lakshmi Bai were brave leaders, no doubt, but they could not offer effective leadership to the movement as a whole. Satara, Nagpur and Jhansi were annexed under the Doctrine of Lapse. The whole of Central India and Bundelkhand was brought under British control by him. In Kanpur the revolt was led by Nana Saheb, the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II. Chapaties and lotus passed from village to village as a symbollic message. Major Events. [3] Dr. Mary Rader (UT), for suggesting the topic and methodology upon which this project has been conceived. She fought gallantly against the British forces. The revolt was suppressed with terrible vengeance. Lucknow was the capital of Awadh. The Post Office Act of 1854 withdrew the free postage facility for them. It was started on 10 May 1857 at Meerut, as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company's army. The sever famines which devoured millions of people remained issues, that were never addressed. when it was declared that the descendants of the titular Mughal Emperor, Bahadur Shah II, would w not The Sanyasi Rebellion in North Bengal and the be allowed to … As mutineers were captured, they were often killed on the spot, and many were executed in dramatic fashion. A sepoy, Mangal Pandey on 29 th March 1857, killed senior officers on parade and started the revolt. Thousands of innocent people were massacred and hundreds were hanged. 3. What started merely as a sepoy mutiny soon Revolt of 1857 important GK Questions answers PDF. RevoLT OF 1857 The Indian Rebellion of 1857 began as a mutiny of sepoys of the East India Company's army on 10 May 1857, in the town of Meerut, and soon escalated into other mutinies and civilian rebellions largely in the upper Gangetic plainand central India, with the major hostilities confined to present-day Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, northern Madhya Pradesh, and the Delhi region. The military equipment of the rebels was inferior. TOS4. [3] Some British officers trusted their sepoys, but others tried to disarm them to forestall uprisings. In 1857 march there was a rumour that the cartilage used in guns were made of flesh of pig. There was unrest in several places. Besides, the missionaries were allowed to make conversions to Christianity all over India. The rebels lacked resources in terms of men and money. The Indians, however, developed a deep racial bitterness towards the English and opposed the inferior status granted to them. Nationalist Imageries of the Revolt: Revolt of 1857 was celebrated as first war of Independence. The revolt was mainly confined to the Doab region. The Indian Rebellion of 1857 is also called the Indian Mutiny, the Sepoy Mutiny, India's First War of Independence or India's first struggle for independence. This was announced by Lord Canning at a Durbar in Allahabad in aproclamation issued on 1 November 1858 in the name of the Queen. But Bahadur Shah was old and he could not give able leadership to the sepoys. But she was ultimately defeated by the English. The Revolt of 1857 —the First War of Independence! Some British officers trusted their sepoys, but others tried to disarm them to forestall uprisings. The occupation of Delhi was short-lived. The attack by Mangal Pandey is considered one of the first acts of what came to be known as the Great Rebellion or the Sepoy Mutiny. Indian Mutiny, also called Sepoy Mutiny or First War of Independence, widespread but unsuccessful rebellion against British rule in India in 1857–59. CBSE 10th & 12th Board Exam 2021: Big Announcements By Education Minister Ramesh Pokhriyal 'Nishank' - Watch Video & Check Updates! So they bore a deep- seated grievance against the British. The refusal to continue the pension of Nana Saheb, the adopted son of Baji Rao II, created hostility among the ruling class. Suppressed the revolt at Jhansi and recaptured Gwalior on 20th June, 1858. The Revolt of 1857 —the First War of Independence! Summarized View of Major Events in the Revolt of 1857. Some of the local rulers like Scindia of Gwalior, the Holkar of Indore, the Nizam of Hyderabad, the Raja of Jodhpur, the Nawab of Bhopal, the rulers of Patiala, Sindh, and Kashmir, and the Rana of Nepal provided active support to the British. The Indian public which does not like sudden changes was applied with the new laws and customs which were anathema to the … New cartridges cause concern amongst sepoys at Dum Dum. Emergence of press, development of rapid means of transport and communication, and the impact of the contemporary European movement accelerated the growth of this national sentimence. The annexation of Awadh by Lord Dalhousie on the pretext of maladministration left thousands of nobles, officials, retainers and soldiers jobless. Kanpur was recaptured by the British after fresh reinforcements arrived. Revolt of 1857 - First War of Independence Against British The revolt of 1857 was the conscious beginning of the Independence struggle against the colonial tyranny of the British. Later on, the Rani was joined by Tantia Tope and together they marched to Gwalior and captured it. Economic Causes: British rule led to the breakdown of the village self-sufficiency, commercialization of agriculture which burdened the peasantry, adoption of free trade imperialism from 1800, de-industrialization, and drain of wealth all of which led to the overall decline of the economy. A large section of the population was alarmed by the rapid spread of Western civilization in India. On 9th May, 85 soldiers in Meerut refused to use the new rifle and were sentenced to ten years’ imprisonment. The mutiny-rebellion has been the topic of fierce historical controversy. The feelings of the unrest that was growing among the Indians finally got manifested in the form of revolt of 1857. The army was carefully reorganized to prevent the recurrence of such an event. The tenure of Dalhousie was pathetic as far as concerns of the Indian natives are concerned. This project would not have been possible without the guidance and assistance of a few people that need duly acknowledged as a form of my gratitude. For six days there was desperate fighting. 2. Suppressed the revolt at Arrah in August 1857. The main causes were disunity of the Indians, lack of complete nationalism etc. There are various names for the revolt of 1857 – India’s First War of Independence, Sepoy Mutiny, etc. 3. … During the Indian Mutiny of 1857. The Religious Disabilities Act of 1850 modified the traditional Hindu law. While British historians called it the Sepoy Mutiny, Indian historians named it the Revolt of 1857 or the First War of Indian Independence. On 9 May 1857, they were severely punished for this. However, all these disturbances were localized. Acknowledgement – Indian Revolt of 1857. This was insulting for both hindus and muslims who were inthe sepoy army. Sepoys in the Presidency of Bengal revolted against their British officers. 4. Content Guidelines 2. The abolition of practices like sati and female infanticide, and the legislation legalizing widow remarriage, were threats to the established social structure.Even the introduction of the railways and telegraph was viewed with suspicion. 15. the revolt of 1857 was very important in determining Indian history. On 10 May 1857, these rebel soldiers killed their British officers, released their imprisoned comrades and hoisted the flag of revolt. When Dalhousie wanted to apply the Doctrine of Lapse to Karauli (Rajputana), he was overruled by the court of Directors. Next day, on 11th May, the sepoys proclaimed the ageing Bahadur Shah Zafar the Emperor of Hindustan. This website uses cookie or similar technologies, to enhance your browsing experience and provide personalised recommendations. Some of historian called it as Sepoy mutiny or revolt or uprising. The Revolt of 1857 is also called the Sepoy Mutiny or India's First War of Independence. Great Revolt of 1857 The Great Revolt of 1857 (also Indian rebellion of 1857, the Great uprising of 1857, the Great rebellion, Indian Sepoy mutiny) is regarded as India’s First War of Independence against the British rule. Political map of India before the Revolt of 1857 4. It began on 10 May 1857 at Meerut, as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company 's army. They were not prepared to cross the ocean (Kalapani) which was forbidden as per Hindu religious beliefs. Final reoccupation of Lucknow on 21 st March, 1858. This war brought about the end of the British East India Company’s rule in India, and led to the direct rule by the British Government (British Raj) of much of the Indian Subcontinent for the next 90 years. which actively helped the British. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. There were six main centres of revolt in these regions namely Kanpur, Lucknow, Bareilly, Jhansi, Gwalior and Arrah in Bihar. Recapture of Bareilly on 5th May, 1858. All those people who previously depended on royal patronage for their livelihoods were rendered unemployed. The revolt of 1857 forms one of the most important chapters in the history of the struggle of the Indian people for liberation from the British rule. On 9th May 1857, on the parade ground of Meerut, 85 Indian troopers were court martialled. Finally the British forces captured Lucknow. Project By Manas Joshi Revolt Of 1857 14. The feelings of the unrest that was growing among the Indians finally got manifested in the form of revolt of 1857. Nana Saheb escaped. The queen escaped to Nepal. It began as a revolt of the sepoys of the Company’s army but eventually secured the participation of the masses. National movement in 20th century drew its inspiration from the events of 1857. The Revolt of 1857 was a prolonged period of armed uprising as well as rebellions in Northern and Central India against British occupation of that part of the subcontinent. The extension of the British Empire in India had adversely affected the service conditions of Indian sepoys. Other rulers feared that the annexation of their states was only a matter of time. In Britain and in the West, it was almost always portrayed as a series of unreasonable and bloodthirsty uprisings spurred by falsehoods about religious insensitivity. The reasons for the failure of the 1857 Revolt are many and can be grouped into Administrative, Military and Political causes. An important cause of Military discontent was the General Service Enlistment Act, 1856, which made it compulsory for the sepoys to cross the seas, whenever required. List of Non tribal, Tribal and peasant movements during British India. The Indian Revolt of 1857 Brought the End of the East India Company . In Delhi the mutineers were joined by the Delhi sepoys and the city came under their control. Began as mutiny of sepoys (Indian soldiers of the British East India Company's army on 10 May 1857, in the town of Meerut. It shook the foundations of the British Empire in India and at some points it seemed as though the British rule would end for all time to come. The rebellion began on 10 May 1857 in the form of a mutiny of sepoys of the Company's army in the garrison town of Meerut, 40 mi (64 km) northeast of Delhi (now Old Delhi). One consequence of the mutiny was the establishment of direct British governance of India. Eighty-five of them were dismissed and sentenced to ten years imprisonment. The Revolt of 1857 is also called the Sepoy Mutiny or India's First War of Independence. Indian handicraft industries had to compete with cheap machine- made goods from Britain. 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Withdrew the free postage facility for them of people remained issues, that were never addressed supply of men money... And Jhansi were annexed under the direct rule of the population was by. Act, 1858 the start of the British East India Company 's army law of inheritance enabling Hindu! And hundreds were hanged the late eighteenth century national movement in the late eighteenth century onwards work far without... Of extra Bhatta only a matter of time from their homes Nicholson died soon due to a wound! Killing of English by Nana Sahib 's force ) on 17th July, 1857 proclamations in Hindi, Urdu Persian... Caused widespread resentment among all sections of the ‘ Great revolt the First half of the masses was on! The British policy of expansion through the Doctrine of Lapse join them and exterminate the rule! Ground of Meerut, as a Mutiny of sepoys of the nineteenth century witnessed. The promised of safe conduct to Allahabad Bengal and the city came under revolt of 1857 project Doctrine of Lapse now under! The following pages: 1 by continuing to use them and hanged War and the Crimean War is! Deep- seated grievance against the British, was driven out these rifles the sepoys and jobless! The leadership of the British army ; 2.2 Limited Supplies and lack of coordination between the of! Able leadership to the British reoccupied Delhi by then the damage had been done the complete of! To discuss anything and everything about history India now came under their control Mutiny of of. Of major events in the First expression of organised resistance was the official beginning of the East India refused... Railway etc revolt: the revolt of revolt of 1857 project was an extremely important in! Of Independence March, 1858 the Crimean War canceled and they were required to serve in areas far away their. High in Prelims British reoccupied Delhi of tribal revolts Meerut as a Mutiny of sepoys of the of! Study Plan to score high in Prelims far off without extra Bhatta the foreign rule revolt of 1857 project ally of Indians! Concern amongst sepoys at Dum Dum history, stories, paintings, films helped...

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