Hot, dry summers are fanning an unprecedented outbreak of bark beetles that are destroying vast swathes of central Europe's spruce forests which define the region's landscape. If one does not believe in Global Warming and its effect, seeing 2007). . WE Danks When we arrived, I asked a ranger about what appeared to be . It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. Waring CM Prepupal diapause and instar IV development rates of spruce beetle, Genetic architecture and phenotypic plasticity of thermally-regulated traits in an eruptive species, Dendroctonus ponderosae, Climate and weather influences on spatial temporal patterns of mountain pine beetle populations in Washington and Oregon, Consequences of climate change for biotic disturbances in North American forests, An innovative aerial assessment of Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem mountain pine beetle-caused whitebark pine mortality, Mountain pine beetle host-range expansion threatens the boreal forest, Bacteria associated with a tree-killing insect reduce concentrations of plant defense compounds, The role of phytopathogenicity in bark beetle-fungal symbioses: a challenge to the classic paradigm, Characterization of gut-associated bacteria in larvae and adults of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, Mechanisms of plant survival and mortality during drought: why do some plants survive while others succumb to drought, Regional vegetation die-off in response to global-change-type drought, The role of temperature variability in stabilizing the mountain pine beetle-fungus mutualism, The southern pine beetle prevention initiative: working for healthier forests, A review of semiochemicals associated with bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) pests of coniferous trees: A focus on beetle interactions with other pests and their associates, Semiochemical emission from individual galleries of the southern pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) attacking standing trees, Interactions among the mountain pine beetle, fires, and fuels, Predicting post-fire Douglas-fir beetle attacks and tree mortality in the northern Rocky Mountains, Fire-injured ponderosa pine provide a pulsed resource for bark beetles, Wildfire provides refuge from local extinction but is an unlikely driver of outbreaks by mountain pine beetle, Effects of Drought on Forests and Rangelands, Invasive Plants in Forests and Rangelands. Others, including the spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis [Kirby], and mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, require one, two, or even three years to produce a single generation, depending on the temperature profile at a particular locale within their large geographic ranges. Information Report BC-X-417, Insect seasonality: Circle map analysis of temperature-driven life cycles, Mixed messages across multiple trophic levels: The ecology of bark beetle chemical communication systems, Cross-scale drivers of natural disturbances prone to anthropogenic amplification: Dynamics of biome-wide bark beetle eruptions, Global and regional drivers of accelerating CO. 1986). EE In the past decade, widespread mountain pine beetle outbreaks in British Columbia and the northern and central US Rocky Mountains have been severe and long lasting, affecting more than 25 million ha (USDA Forest Service, Forest Health Protection, and Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service). Developmental timing. Mountain pine beetle. JH SJ JS Other species of bark beetles such as pinÌƒon ips can be triggered by similar conditions, although their population dynamics are more directly tied to the condition of the host tree (12). Once a host is selected, colonization requires overcoming constitutive and inducible tree defenses, which include anatomical, physical, and chemical components (Franceschi et al. Rapid genetic adaptation of insects to seasonal changes in temperature has already been documented (Balanyá et al. Bark beetle response to climate change can be characterized by a high degree of complexity and uncertainty, as populations are influenced directly by shifts in temperature and indirectly through climatic effects on community associates and host trees. . T. Tran, J. K.; Ylioja, T.; Billings, R. F.; Regniere, J.; Ayres, M. P. 2007. AV Kegley In addition to climate controls on adaptive developmental timing, mortality from cold exposure is considered a key temperature-related factor in bark beetle population dynamics, although there are few data for most bark beetle species. An increase in low-temperature survival is predicted for spatially isolated areas in Canada, including west-central Alberta, where mountain pine beetle has recently been found attacking lodgepole/jack pine hybrids (Nealis and Peter 2009). Franceschi Higher probability of one-year life-cycle duration translates to higher probability of population outbreak and increased levels of spruce-beetle-caused tree TS By the end of the century, the change in temperatures across the boreal forests of central Canada may cause markedly higher probability of spruce beetle outbreak potential, based on developmental timing alone. H JG U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Climate Change Resource Center. Barbara Bentz, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Kier Klepzig, Southern Research Station, An archived version of this topic paper is available. Although plants tend to thrive in carbon-enriched atmospheres, mature wildland conifer species are not necessarily carbon limited and therefore may not express large growth increases in response to increased carbon dioxide (CO2; Millard et al. KF The .gov means it’s official. et al. Kurz In the mountain pine beetle, for example, life stage-specific developmental thresholds aid in synchronizing adult emergence at appropriate times of the year (Powell and Logan 2005). Large areas of suitable host trees of susceptible vigor, age, and density are required for an outbreak to develop (Fettig et al. Temperature data from the historical period 1961–1990 show that the majority of the area within the current range of the mountain pine beetle had low predicted probability of adaptive seasonality, although scattered areas throughout the area had moderately high probability (figures 2a, 3a). Mork Our modeling results provide some insight into concerns expressed about the potential for mountain pine beetle range expansion across the boreal pine forests of central Canada and into pine forests of central and eastern United States. . Mechanisms of plant survival and mortality during drought: Why do some plants survive while others succumb to drought? Although basic outbreak dynamics and impacts of some bark beetle species have been described, characterizing and quantifying these impacts on ecosystem functions and services remains a significant challenge. Sommerkorn For example, we know that bark beetles may respond to drought-stressed trees (8, 27), but specific precipitation thresholds and the role of moisture deficit in the bark beetle/tree relationship remains unclear. Because pine hosts extend beyond the current mountain pine beetle range, and because the beetle is a known polyphage, we also provide projections of the potential for expansion into pine forests of northern, central, and eastern Canada and the eastern United States. DL An important consequence of climate change is higher frequency and severity of droughts (Seager et al. Bentz Temperature can be significant for forests central British Columbia and west-central Alberta a western North America J. Different thermal ranges for optimal growth ( Rice et al to cause landscape-scale mortality... 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